Cognitive Maps

In a 1948 paper entitled Cognitive Maps in Rats and Men Edward C Tolman argued that the responses of rats navigating mazes were based on cognitive maps, a cognitive map being a “… tentative map, indicating routes and paths and environmental relationships …”. He went on to hypothesise that “… too strong motivations or … too intense frustration…” might cause “narrowing” in the cognitive maps in humans and that this could be related to “individual and social maladjustments”.